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Quick Finder:


  • What are heart valves?
  • Which valves require replacement?
  • What are the defects or disease conditions that require valve replacement?
  • Which of these need change more often?
  • What are Artificial Heart Valves?
  • How many types of artificial valves are in use?
  • Is there a preference between these two types?
  • Are all mechanical valves similar?
  • What are their merits and demerits?
  • What kind of valve is TTK Chitra Valve?
  • What is the TTK Chitra Valve made of?
  • What is the expected life of the TTK Chitra Valve?
  • Is the valve sterile?
  • Are any special tools needed to use these valves?
  • Are these valves available in different sizes?
  • Can they be re-sterilized?
  • How many of these valves had been used so far?
  • Is it being used in both Government and Private Hospitals in the country?
  • Are these valves exported out of India?
  • Where was the TTK Chitra valve designed and developed?
  • Is the TTK Valve fully tested?
  • Are these valves certified by any competent agencies?
  • Is the valve in commercial production?
   

What are heart valves?
The human heart has four valves namely Tricuspid valve, Pulmonary valve, Mitral valve and Aortic valve. The Tricuspid and the Mitral valves are inflow valves, which regulate the filling of the ventricles (pumping chambers), while the Pulmonary and Aortic valves guard the outflow openings. Together these four valves ensure the proper forward flow of blood.
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Which valves require replacement?
Generally the Mitral and the Aortic valves are the ones that are affected and require replacement.
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What are the defects or disease conditions that require valve replacement?
In India, as in other Third World countries, Rheumatic Heart Disease leads to the valve not opening fully (STENOSIS) or not closing fully (REGURGITATION). In either case the heart does not function normally. In such cases the particular valve has to be replaced.
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Which of these need change more often?
In India, the Mitral valve is the one most frequently affected. The Aortic valve is affected to a lesser extent. Occasionally both valves require to be changed.
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What are Artificial Heart Valves?
When the natural valve fails to maintain a satisfactory function of the blood circulatory system, it has to be replaced by a man-made substitute. Since the substitute is a replacement and involves manufacturing, these valves are called artificial even if they are made from natural materials.
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How many types of artificial valves are in use?
There are two major classes of valves.
• Tissue Valves which are made from Bovine, Porcine or Human tissues.
• Mechanical Valves made from synthetic materials.
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Is there a preference between these two types?
When a foreign substance is introduced in the blood stream, there is a tendency for the blood to clot. In the case of mechanical valves this means that the patient has to take an anticoagulant medicine once a day throughout his life. Tissue valves do not require this normally.

But tissue valves have poor durability. And in young patients, these valves tend to calcify and affect normal functioning.

Since Rheumatic Heart Disease patients in the third world are young, mechanical valves are more suitable. In the western world, the patient is usually much older and a less durable tissue valve with the advantage of not needing anticoagulation is preferred.

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Are all mechanical valves similar?
There are three major types in mechanical valves.
• Caged Ball
• Tilting Disc and
• Bileaflet
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What are their merits and demerits?
The Caged Balled valve is simple in design and less prone to problems. It is also the least efficient in terms of Haemodynamics and energy efficiency. It also has a high profile, which can cause problems.

The Tilting Disc valve has a very low profile, good Haemodynamics, and good energy efficiency.

The Bileaflet valve is claimed to be the most efficient. It also has all the advantages of the tilting disc valve. However it is also the most expensive.

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What kind of valve is TTK Chitra Valve?
The TTK Chitra Valve is the tilting disc type. But the unique US Patented disc gives it a performance similar to the Bileaflet valve at a very affordable price.
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What is the TTK Chitra Valve made of?
All the materials used in this valve are time-tested bio-materials, with a very long and safe record as implant.

This valve has three parts.
The Sewing Ring - This is made of specially knitted 100% polyester fabric, which is   enjoying wide use world-wide as a cardio-vascular implant material
The Valve Frame - This is machined from a monolithic block of Chrome-Cobalt alloy, which   enjoys a distinguished track record as a Cardiac Implant material
The Tilting Disc - This is made from Ultra High Molecular Weight Polyethylene (molecular weight more than 6 million). This material has superb blood compatibility, fracture resistance, and has sound absorbing properties. This makes the TTK Chitra Valve the most silent mechanical valve. It has a small positive buoyancy which improves the haemodynamics close to that of the much costlier Bileaflet valve

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What is the expected life of the TTK Chitra Valve?
Based on Invitro data, animal trials and analysis of explanted valves, the TTK Chitra Valve has a life exceeding the life span of a normal human being.
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Is the valve sterile?
The TTK Chitra Valve is double packed in rigid polycarbonate containers and is sterilized by autoclaving at 121 degree centigrade.
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Are any special tools needed to use these valves?
A set of accessories is supplied by TTK Healthcare Ltd to facilitate implantation of these valves. These are reusable repeatedly. Shortly a single use disposable holder will be integrated into the valve box.

The accessories include sizers, holders and a soft stylus to check disc movement.

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Are these valves available in different sizes?
TTK Chitra Valves are available in the eight popular sewing diameters of 17mm, 19mm, 21mm, 23mm, 25mm, 27mm, 29mm and 31mm. These are supplied both in the Aortic or Mitral versions.
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Can they be re-sterilized?
TTK Healthcare offers a resterilization service at cost. This would ensure that the valve is perfectly safe to use. However the user can also re-sterilize these if the instructions for re-sterilizing recommended in the literature accompanying each valve is followed.
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How many of these valves had been used so far?
Since the first implantation during December 1990, over 18,000 valves has been used till August, 2006.
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Is it being used in both Government and Private Hospitals in the country?
Out of about 200 hospitals in India which have the facility for performing a valve replacement surgery, TTK Chitra valves are being used in about 180 hospitals.
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Are these valves exported out of India?
Yes, TTK Chitra valves are being exported to South Africa. These valves had been used in the neighboring countries like Sri Lanka and Nepal.
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Where was the TTK Chitra valve designed and developed?
The TTK Chitra valve was designed and developed by Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), an autonomous Institute under the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India. The Technology has been licensed to TTK Healthcare Ltd. by the National Research Development Corporation, New Delhi. TTK Healthcare Ltd. jointly with the SCTIMST bagged the prestigious National Award 2001 for the Successful Commercialisation of Indigenous Technology.
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Is the TTK Valve fully tested?
The TTK Valve is one of the best-researched implants of its kind in India. It has undergone rigorous international protocols for the development of cardiac implants. It took more than two decades of development including materials toxicology, computer aided design, aerospace techniques of fabrication, computer aided invitro performance testing, and full scale large animal trials before the device was cleared by the ethics committee for controlled clinical trials. The clinical trials themselves were conducted over a 5 year period in three phases.
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Are these valves certified by any competent agencies?
The manufacturing facility has been certified in accordance with ISO 9001:2000/ EN ISO 9001:2000/ JIS Q 9001:2000 by RW TUV systems GmbH.
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Is the valve in commercial production?
The TTK Valve is now in regular production at the dedicated, controlled facility set up by TTK HEALTHCARE LTD in Chennai.
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